History - The city of Shumen was founded 3200 years ago. During ancient times the city was cradle on the rich spirit and significant culture - Thracians, Romans, Byzantines, Bulgarians. In close proximity to Shumen are the first two capitals of the Bulgarian nation - Pliska and Veliki Preslav and the religious center Madara. Special active culture and educational activities develop during the golden age of Bulgaria when the city is called Simeonis. There are two different stories regarding the name of the city Shumen. The first is that the name descends from the name of Tsar Simeon Veliki: Simeon - Shimeonis - Shumen. The second is that it descends from shuma, or foliage - a greatly timbered place with many forests. From its finding until the 15th century, the city was situated in the region of the Shumen fortress which explains the well-made complex of public and culture buildings. After the crusades march of Vladislav Varnenchik during 1444, Shumen was destroyed by the Turkish and moved to the present place at the foot of Ilchov Skat. Shumen was one of the most active centers of the Bulgarian Renaissance. On the 11th of May, 1813, the city follows the first in Bulgaria celebration of the Holy Brothers Cyril and Methodius and the first theatrical production. During 1828, it is founded the first ( ) school for girls and during 1856 the first ( ) class school and the first cultural community center. During 1846, the first schools amateur groups are founded. The first Bulgarian symphony orchestra is founded in Shumen during 1850. Created here are notable Shumen men - from the Renaissance: Dobri Voynikov, Vasil Droomev, Sava Dobroplodny, Panayot Volov, Nancho Polovich, Iliya R. Bluskov and others. After the liberation of Bulgaria from Turkish rule, Shumen was the center of the region or the district during every administrative partition with two brief exceptions - after September 9th, 1944 for two years and from 1987 with the introduction of the new regions in Bulgaria. Now it is the center for a renowned municipality. Earliest reports for Shumen fortress date back to the early Iron Age. From the 12th century BC is the first fort, surrounding accessible parts of the area. Archaeological surveys, conducted in 1957, 1961 to 1987, determined the chronological periods, the lifestyle and the livelihood of the inhabitants of the fortress. It had a wall thickness of about two meters, built of rough stones. In the 5th century BC second wall was built in front of the former. In the 2nd century the Romans built a military fortress on the ruins of the Thracian fortifications. The construction of the wall is already bonded to mortar; a tower was constructed above the gate; square tower was built to the west and semicircular to the south. In the 4-5th centuries the entire hill was fortified with a new wall with nine towers. Between the 8th and the 10th century the fort was renovated, for the purpose the Roman wall and towers were used and to the northeast was built a new wall with two towers. In 681 khan Asparukh incorporated the territory into the First Bulgarian Empire. In 811 Shumen was burned by the Byzantine emperor Nicephorus and he was killed at the Battle of Pliska, when khan Krum of Bulgaria encased Nicephorus's skull in silver, and used it as a cup for wine-drinking. The Bulgarian fortification of the 7-10th centuries developed into a feudal city with castle with surrounding inner and outer defensive zones, in which can be counted 28 towers and bastions, three gates and five small porticoes, with many churches and workshops (12th to 14th century). During the golden age of Bulgarian culture under Simeon the Great (893-927), Shumen was a centre of cultural and religious activity, and may have borne the name Simeonis. During the Second Bulgarian Empire, Shumen was a significant military, administrative and economic center, displacing even the old Bulgarian capital Preslav and developing outside the fortress. In the medieval city of Shumen the main religion was the Orthodox Christianity, evidence of which were the found in the outline of the walls seven churches, commemorative coins with the image of crosses, angels and the numerous findings of Orthodox crosses separately, as well as their image on rings and on other artefacts, found in the graves and the homes. Change occurs only after the Ottoman conquest of the city in the 15th century, when Islam was introduced.
Shumen Fortress Plan - In 1388 the sultan Murad I forced it to surrender to the Ottoman Empire. After Władysław Warneńczyk's unsuccessful crusade in 1444, the city was destroyed by the Ottomans and moved to its present location. In the 18th century it was enlarged and fortified. Three times, in 1774, 1810 and 1828, it was unsuccessfully attacked by Russian armies. The Turks consequently gave it the name of Gazi ("Victorious"). In 1854 it was the headquarters of Omar Pasha and the point at which the Turkish army concentrated (See Crimean War).
Shumen, 1912 - During the 19th century Shumen was an important centre of the Bulgarian National Revival, with the first celebration of Cyril and Methodius in the Bulgarian lands taking place on 11 May 1813 and the first theatre performance. A girls' religious school was established in 1828, a class school for girls and a chitalishte (community centre) followed in 1856. The first Bulgarian symphony orchestra was founded in the city in 1850. In the same year, influential Hungarian politician and revolutionary leader Lajos Kossuth spent a part of his exile in the then-Ottoman town of Shumen. The house he lived in is still preserved as a museum.
On 22 June 1878 Shumen finally capitulated to the Russians and became part of the newly independent Bulgaria. In 1882 the Shumen Brewery, the first brewery in Bulgaria, was founded. In the period 1950–1965 the city was called Kolarovgrad, after the name of the communist leader Vasil Kolarov.